Detailed Credits

Grateful acknowledgment is made to the rights holders and licensing agencies for the use of the following material. Every effort has been made to contact original sources. If notified, the publishers will be pleased to rectify an omission in future editions. Many thanks to Flickr: The Commons for providing access to the photos marked with asterisks.

violet
Page: Cover
Photographer: unknown
Title: Violet Lynch running into the surf - Miami Beach, Florida
Date: unknown
Location: Miami Beach, Florida
Collection: State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory
Description: "With a screech and a splash, Violet Lynch is shown running into the surf at Miami clad in the latest in bathing suits designed by Ethel Traphagen of New York. Made of korosealed marquisette, the design captured the style from the return of corsets in women's apparel."
 
coeds
Page: 1
Photographer: unknown
Title: Coeds with Hoes
Date: 1944
Location: Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
Collection: Oregon State University Special Collections and Archives, # HC972
Description: "The county experimental hop yard recruited Oregon State College Coeds for a quick job of hoeing."
   
bathers
Page: 2
Photographer: unknown
Title: Group of Bathers
Date:1921
Location: England
Collection: Isobel Dawson photo collection
Description: Co-author Barb Mayer's maternal grandmother is standing third from the right (next to the man.)
   
beachdance
Page: 3
Photographer: Het Leven magazine
Title: Dancing on the Beach
Date: 1927
Location: Bournemouth, England
Collection: Dutch National Archives, Spaarnestad Collection, # SFA002009694
Description: Dancers standing in a row at the water's edge on the beach at Bournemouth, England.
   
buxom
Page: 4
Photographer: unknown
Title: Buxom Woman
Date: unknown
Location: unknown
Collection: Barb Mayer photo collection
Description: Found in thrift shop, Renton, Washington
   
alice
Page: 5
Photographer: unknown
Title: Alice White
Date: 1920s
Location: unknown
Collection: unknown - found on Flickr
Description: American screen actress Alice White (1904-1983) posing for a publicity shot.
   
becoming
Page: 6
Photographer: A.H. Poole Studio
Title: Becoming a Woman
Date: 1919
Location: Ireland
Collection: National Library of Ireland *
Description: Studio portrait, possibly of Bridget Dillon (Kilcash, Ballypatrick, Clonmel.) Commissioned by Miss Dillon.
   
barbells
Page: 7
Photographer: Fox Photos
Title: Beach Exercise
Date: 1935
Location: Worthing, England
Collection: Getty Images Prestige, HB 5492-001
Description: "A group of women exercising on the beach at Worthing (England) using new inflated swim bars."
   
dot
Page: 8
Photographer: unknown
Title: Dot Smith on Motorcycle
Date: 1939
Location: unknown
Collection: unknown - found on Huffington Post website
Description: According to Cristine Sommer Simmons (author of The American Motorcycle Girls) Dot Smith was a member of the Motor Maids, an organization for female bikers. She also rode with the San Francisco Motorcycle Club.
   
antiflirt
Page: 9
Photographer: National Photo Company
Title: Miss Alice Reighly
Date:1923
Location: Washington,D.C.
Collection: Library of Congress
Description: "Miss Alice Reighly was President of the Anti-Flirt Club which had just been organized in Washington, D.C. The club was composed of young women and girls who had been embarrassed by men in automobiles and on street corners."
   
reading
Page: 10
Photographer: John P. Troy
Title: Student Reading to Two Little Girls
Date:1920
Location: Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
Collection: Cornell University Library, Rare and Manuscript Collection * # 23-2-749, RT-S-16
Description: Photographed for the 1920 Cornell University home economics catalog.
   
waterski
Page: 11
Photographer: Henry Essenhigh Corke (1883-1919)
Title: Mother and Child
Date: c1910
Location: unknown
Collection: © Royal Photographic Society, National Media Museum, Science and Society Picture Library*
Description: Mother and baby, originally processed using autochrome -- an early color process which used a glass plate covered in microscopic red, green and blue grains of potato starch. For more details, click here.
   
waterski
Page: 12
Photographer: Ralph Walker
Title: Water Skiers
Date: c1960
Location: Missouri
Collection: Courtesy of Missouri State Archives*, Image #CID_057-003
Description: Four women hold a formation on water skis during a pageant.
   
raquel
Page: 13
Photographer: unknown
Title: Raquel Torres
Date: 1929
Location: unknown
Collection: unknown
Description: Hollywood MGM starlet Raquel Torres (right) in a mountain-staged publicity shot. Raquel Torres (1908-1987) was a Mexican-American film actress whose films include Duck Soup (1933) and Go West, Young Man (1936.) For more information on Raquel Torres, click here.
   
unruly
Page: 14
Photographer: unknown
Title: Unruly Children
Date: unknown
Location: unknown
Collection: Flickr Vintage Postcard Images
Description: Vintage postcard (staged image) showing a woman with her three unruly children. Vintage postcards became popular at the turn of the 20th Century, especially for sending short messages to friends and relatives.
   
nuts
Page: 15
Photographer: unknown
Title: Family Gathering
Date: 1922
Location: London, England
Collection: Isobel Dawson photo collection
Description: A family gathering in London, England, including the sisters of coauthor Barb Mayer''s paternal grandfather.
   
blizzard
Page: 16
Photographer: unknown
Title: Blizzard
Date: Jan. 28, 1922
Location: Washington, D.C.
Collection: Library of Congress
Description: The blizzard of 1922, also known as the Knickerbocker Snowstorm, was Washington's largest snowstorm on record with a depth of 28 inches. For more details click here.
   
women
Page: 17
Photographer: unknown
Title: Pinup girls at Naval Air Station, Seattle
Date: 1944
Location: Seattle, WA
Collection: National Archives and Records Administration
Description: Pin-up girls at the Naval Air Station, Seattle, WA Spring Formal Dance.
   
engineer
Page: 18
Photographer: unknown
Title: Mary Blade, Standing at Blackboard
Date: Oct., 1946
Location: New York, N.Y.
Collection: Smithsonian Institution Archives*, Image # 90-105
Description: "In 1946, when this photograph was taken, Mary Blade was the only woman on the Cooper Union engineering faculty in New York City (where she initially taught drawing, mathematics, and design) and one of few women on any engineering faculty in the United States. Blade was an avid and accomplished mountain climber.".
   
elsie
Page: 19
Photographer: unknown
Title: Irish Boxing Champion Elsie Connor
Date: Aug. 5, 1931
Location: New York, N.Y.
Collection:Getty Images, Gamma-Keystone Collection, # 466703383
Description: Irish boxing champion Elsie Connor in New York City.
   
skating
Page: 20
Photographer: unknown
Title: Portrait of Two Young Women Skating
Date: 1940s
Location: unknown
Collection: Shutterstock, Everett Collection, # 92590018
Description: Two young women with roller skates posing for a photo on the road.
   
children
Page: 21
Photographer: Ted Hood
Title: Children in Sydney Slums
Date: 1949
Location: Surry Hills, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Collection: Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales, # PXA 584
Description: Children in Sydney slums, mainly Surry Hills. The photographer, Ted Hood, was the son of well-known Australian photographer Sam Hood.
   
youngcouple
Page: 22
Photographer: Sven Türck
Title: Young couple at Hampen Lake, Central Jutland
Date: unknown
Location: Central Jutland, Denmark
Collection: The Royal Library, Denmark*, # turck_22013
Description: Young couple at Hampen Lake, Central Jutland.
   
oldercouple
Page: 23
Photographer: Einar Erici (1885-1965)
Title: Mr. and Mrs. Nilsson, Kulladal, Skåne, Sweden
Date: 1935
Location: Kulladal, Skåne, Sweden
Collection: Swedish National Heritage Board*, # EE0045
Description: The master painter Olof Nilsson, born in 1865, and his wife in a garden, probably by their house at 5, Ludvigsgatan Street in the Kulladal area of Malmö, Sweden.
   
mexican
Page: 24
Photographer: Bain News Service
Title: Dolores Del Rio
Date: unknown
Location: unknown
Collection: Library of Congress
Description: Dolores del Rio (1905-1983) was a Mexican film, television and stage actress who was a Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s. Her films include What Price Glory? (1926), Flying Down to Rio (1933), and Journey Into Fear (1943.) For more information on Dolores del Rio,click here.
   
dance
Page: 25
Photographer: Jim Fitzpatrick
Title: Wes Colquhoun and Fred Phair talking to the girls at the ball in the Soldier's Memorial Hall, Drouin, Victoria
Date: 1944
Location: Drouin, Victoria, Australia
Collection: National Library of Australia*, # 669443, Drouin town and rural life during World War II.
Description: " Pride of the stag line at Drouin's weekly dance were bachelors -- Warrant Officer Wes Colquhoun (23), R.A.A.F. and Corporal Fred Phair (25), A.I.F. Wes, son of Drouin's butcher, was sole surviving member of a Lancaster Crew... Fred, son of Drouin's fruiterer, served in New Guinea... (printed on label.)"
   
ribbons
Page: 26
Photographer: unknown
Title: Girl with Ribbons
Date: 1929
Location: Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada
Collection: Isobel Dawson photo collection
Description: Barb Mayer's mother, Helen "June" Mayer was raised in Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada. She is pictured here at the age of 17 months standing on the doorstep of her family's prairie home.
   
blueberries
Page: 27
Photographer: Miles Brothers
Title: Eating Blueberries
Date: c1903
Location: Valdez, Alaska
Collection: Library of Congress, National Photo Company Collection
Description: "The picnic girl out for a day in the woods near Valdez, Alaska, enjoying a feast of blueberries."
   
skates
Page: 28
Photographer: Harris and Ewing
Title: Safety First
Date: 1936
Location: Washington, D.C.
Collection: Library of Congress
Description: "Safety first for this Miss, Washington, D.C. August 8. Equipped with bumpers fore and aft, 4-year-old Betty Buck is taking no unnecessary chances as she tries her first pair of roller skates."
   
trapeze
Page: 29
Photographer: Joseph Steinmetz (1905-1985)
Title: Ringling Circus and trapeze artist Elly Ardelty in Sarasota, Florida.
Date: 1948
Location: Sarasota, Florida
Collection: State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory
Description: Elly Ardelty was born in Leningrad, Russia. She learned the art of trapeze performing from the famous trapeze artist Arthur Ardelty, and later became his wife. In 1940 she was offered a job performing with Ringing Brothers Circus. For more information on Elly Ardelty, click here.
   
pilots
Page: 30
Photographer: unknown
Title: World War II WASPS
Date: 1943
Location: Lockbourne Army Air Force Base, Ohio
Collection: U.S. National Archives
Description: Four WASPS (Women Airforce Service Pilots) leave their B-17, called Pistol Packin' Mama, during training at Lockbourne Army Air Force Base in Ohio. They're carrying their parachutes.
   
pilot
Page: 31
Photographer: unknown
Title: Woman in cockpit of University School of Aeronautics, Austin, Texas plane
Date: 1928
Location: Austin, Texas
Collection: Southern Methodist University, Central University Libraries, DeGolyer LIbrary*, Lawrence T. Jones III Texas photography collection
Description: Unknown woman in cockpit of plane -- University School of Aeronautics, Austin, Texas.
   
migrant
Page: 32
Photographer: Dorothea Lange (1895-1965)
Title: Migrant potato pickers, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, California
Date: 1939
Location: Tulelake, Siskiyou County, California
Collection: Library of Congress, Farm Security Administration, Office of War Information
Description: This photo of a young mother with her daughter was taken during the Depression. During this time period, Dorothea Lange worked taking photos for the Farm Security Administration.
   
grooming
Page: 33
Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt (1898-1995)
Title: Mother Grooming her Daughter
Date: 1941
Location: Memphis,Tennessee
Collection: Getty Images, LIFE Picture Collection, # 53378644
Description: Mother grooming her daughter for the healthiest baby contest held at an African American Fair, Memphis, Tennessee.
   
bumpers
Page: 34
Photographer: National Photo Company
Title: Viola LaLonde and Eliz. Van Tuyl
Date: June 13, 1922
Location: unknown (probably Washington,D.C.)
Collection: Library of Congress, National Photo Company Collection
Description: Two women, Viola LaLonde and Elizabeth Van Tuyl, perched on the bumpers of a vintage automobile.
   
GOLF
Page: 35
Photographer: National Photo Company
Title: Icing off at the tee
Date: c1920
Location: Washington, D.C.
Collection: Library of Congress, National Photo Company Collection
Description: " Miss Dorothy Kelly teeing off on a cake of ice. The others in the group are Misses Virginia Hunter, Elaine Griggs, Hazel Brown, and Mary Kaminsky."
   
skate
Page: 36
Photographer: unknown
Title: Skate to Work, Save Gas
Date: 1940s
Location: New York, N.Y.
Collection: unknown
Description: Women on roller skates. Details of photo unknown.
   
suffragette
Page: 37
Photographer: Bain News Service
Title: Mrs. Van Winkle and Suffrage Torch
Date: c1915
Location: unknown
Collection: Library of Congress
Description: Mrs. Van Winkle holds the suffrage torch. Mina Van Winkle (1875-1932) worked as a social worker, suffragist, and police lieutenant. For more details, click here.
   
sharecropper
Page: 38
Photographer: Russell Lee (1903-1986)
Title: Sharecropper woman worker, Southeast Missouri Farms
Date: May, 1938
Location: New Madrid County, Missouri (Southeast Missouri Farms)
Collection: Library of Congress, U.S. Farm Security Administration
Description: Woman sharecropper working the fields in Southeast Missouri.
   
keller
Page: 39
Photographer: unknown
Title: Helen Keller, three-quarter length, seated, facing right, holding hand of her teacher, Mrs. John A. Macy (Anne Mansfield Sullivan)
Date: 1909
Location: unknown
Collection: Library of Congress
Description: Helen Keller holds the hand of her teacher. Ms. Keller was a suffragist, a pacifist, and an advocate for people with disabilities. For more about Helen Keller, click here. Helen's teacher and longtime companion was Mrs. John A. Macy (more commonly known as Annie Sullivan.) For more about Annie Sullivan, click here.
   
fishing
Page: 40
Photographer: Gerald R. Massie (1911-1989)
Title: Successful Fishing Trip
Date: c1955
Location: Missouri
Collection: Courtesy of the Missouri State Archives*, # CID_019_111
Description: Three women sit on a fence holding their catch from a recent fishing trip.
   
twins
Page: 41
Photographer: Harris and Ewing
Title: Twins Become Mothers
Date: April 7, 1939
Location: Washington, D.C.
Collection: Library of Congress, Harris and Ewing Collection
Description: " Twins become mothers together for the second time in less than two years. Accustomed to doing practically the same things all their lives, these Washington twins, new mothers, have apparently decided that having their children together would certainly be in order. The mothers Mrs. Eileen Moon, left, and Mrs. Kathleen Robie, last week gave birth to daughters to set a new record at Columbia Maternity Hospital. Mrs. Moon's youngster, whom she named Carol,was born on March 29, while Mrs. Robie's new daughter Nancy Lee first saw the light of day on April 1. This same thing happened in July 1937 when Mrs. Robie gave birth to a girl and a few hours later Mrs. Moon's baby, a boy, arrived."
   
costume
Page: 42
Photographer: A.H. Poole
Title: Convent, group of eight of the girls
Date: 1930
Location: Wexford, Ireland
Collection: National Library of Ireland*, Poole Photographic Collection, NLI Ref P_WP_3785
Description: "Pupils of Our Lady of Lourdes, Holy Faith School at Rosbercon, New Ross, Co. Wexford dressed up, perhaps for a Nativity Play."
   
mache
Page: 43
Photographer: Herald Newspaper, Melbourne, Australia
Title: A Papier-Mache Cow on Mrs. Mellor's Car
Date: Feb 29, 1944
Location: Melbourne, Australia
Collection: Australian War Memorial Collection (found through Wikimedia Commons)
Description: "A papier-mache cow, used for milking demonstrations at the Werribee experimental farm, being tied on to the luggage carrier of Mrs. Mellor's car for transport to the farm. Mrs. Mellor is Field Officer in Charge of the Women's Land Army Mont Park training depot."
   
determined
Page: 44
Photographer: unknown
Title: Young Girl Posed for British Postcard
Date: 1920s
Location: England
Collection: unknown
Description: Young girl posed for a British postcard.
   
harley
Page: 45
Photographer: unknown
Title: Two Norwegian Women Riding a Vintage Harley Davidson
Date: c1925
Location: Myklebysetra, Norway
Collection: Ingmar Eng photo collection via Harald Østmoe
Description: In the words of Harald Østmoe: "The two on the bike are sisters. Sigrid Grinaker Skramstad (1892-1984) is driving. She was a farmer. My grandmother, Odny Grinaker-Østmoe (1896-1978) is the passenger. She was a dentist. The photo was taken ca 1925 in the mountains where they kept their cattle in the summer. It was the midst of summer as I can tell from the vegetation and the cow dung on the road. This was a very happy and joyful time of the year. They could escape the hard work down in the valley, to do hard work in the mountains, but with a lot more freedom. We still have the old farmhouse up there, but now it's only used for vacations."
   
cowgirls
Page: 46
Photographer: unknown
Title: Springfield Cowgirls
Date: c1930
Location: Springfield, Illinois
Collection: Wikimedia Commons
Description: Cowgirls at the Springfield Exposition, Springfield, Illinois.
   
horseback
Page: 47
Photographer: Charles Elliott Gill (1869-1962)
Title: Women on Horseback
Date: c1910
Location: Dent County, Missouri
Collection: Courtesy of the Missouri State Archives,* Image # MS330_619
Description: Women in long coats and scarves pose mounted on horses standing in a row across a clearing with snow on the wooded hillside behind them. The women sit side saddle on the horses, but on regular saddles. Note: Image has been cropped
   
tuba
Page: 48
Photographer: Harris and Ewing
Title: Women With Tuba
Date: 1928
Location: unknown
Collection: Library of Congress, Harris and Ewing Collection
Description: Two women, identity unknown, one playing tuba. Note: Image has been cropped
   
chinese
Page: 49
Photographer: unknown
Title: Chinese Bather
Date: c1920
Location: unknown
Collection: unknown
Description: Woman strolling on the beach with parasol and magazine.
   
car
Page: 50
Photographer: National Photo Company
Title: Miss Mary Bay
Date: Jan 29, 1924
Location: Washington, D.C.
Collection: Library of Congress, National Photo Company Collection
Description: Entertainer Mary Bay drives a miniature car, possibly related to Gus Edwards and his girl revue Toppers at B.F. Keith's Theater, Washington, D.C.
   
flappers
Page: 51
Photographer: National Photo Company
Title: Mildred Billert and Hazel Bowman of Ned Weyburn's Review
Date: Feb. 7, 1925
Location: unknown
Collection: Library of Congress, National Photo Company Collection
Description: Mildred Billett and Hazel Bowman of Ned Weyburn's Review.
   
beach
Page: 52
Photographer: unknown
Title: On the Beach
Date: c1935
Location: Queensland, Australia
Collection: State Library of Queensland,* Record #80651
Description: Young women running over a sand dune on an unidentified beach in Queensland, Australia.
   
splashing
Page: 53
Photographer: Het Leven magazine
Title: Women Having Fun in the Sea
Date: unknown
Location: Netherlands
Collection: Dutch National Archives,* Spaarnestad Collection, #SFA001008525
Description: Unidentified women splashing in the sea.
   
sushila
Page: 54
Photographer: unknown
Title: Sushila Rao
Date: 1940s
Location: India
Collection: unknown
Description: Caption from The Sartorialist. "This is a photo of my very elegant grandmother, Sushila Rao, posing with her new camera in India, where she was born and raised. It was probably taken sometime in the1940s. She's wearing a tailored, white linen suit and flat, brown leather sandals, which make her look strong despite the fact that she's very petite. It was very daring of her to be out and about in menswear back then, rather than a traditional sari."
   
seneca
Page: 55
Photographer: J.L. Blessing
Title: Ah-Weh-Eyu (Pretty Flower)
Date: 1908
Location: New York
Collection: Wikimedia Commons
Description: Portrait of Ah-Weh-Eyu (Pretty Flower) of the Seneca tribe, published by the Blessing Studio, Salamanca, New York.
   
puppy
Page: 56
Photographer: Willem Van de Poll (1895-1970)
Title: Model Eva Waldschmidt with her Dog
Date: unknown
Location: Netherlands
Collection: Dutch National Archives,* Van de Poll Collection, Image #189-0240
Description: Model Eva Waldschmidt holding a puppy.
   
pearl
Page: 57
Photographer: White Studio
Title: Pearl White, no. 2
Date: c1916
Location: New York
Collection: Library of Congress
Description: Silent film actress Pearl White (1889-1938) poses for a publicity shot, holding a pig while seated on the hood of a Stutz automobile with New York license plates.
   
ice
Page: 58
Photographer: unknown
Title: Girls Deliver Ice
Date: 1918
Location: unknown
Collection: U.S. National Archives, # 533758. Series: American Unofficial Collection of World War I Photographs, 1917-1918. Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, 1860-1952.
Description: "Girls deliver ice. Heavy work that formerly belonged to men only is done by girls. The ice girls are delivering ice on a route and their work requires brawn as well as the patriotic ambition to help."
   
mechanics
Page: 59
Photographer: National Photo Company
Title: High School girls learn the art of automobile mechanics
Date: c1927
Location: Central High, Washington, D.C.
Collection: Library of Congress, National Photo Company Collection
Description: "High school girls learn the art of automobile mechanics. Left to right: Grace Hurd, Evelyn Harrison, and Corinna DiJiulian, with Grace Wagner under car."
   
sexed
Page: 60
Photographer: unknown
Title: Sex Education
Date: 1929
Location: unknown
Collection: unknown
Description: Students attending a sex education class.
   
entertainer
Page: 61
Photographer: unknown
Title: The Entertainer
Date: Dec. 14, 1921
Location: Seattle, WA
Collection: Library of Congress
Description: Postcard showing full-length portrait of a woman, standing, facing front,wearing hat and short skirt. Caption reads "Butler Café Revue, Seattle, WA."
   
bulldog
Page: 62
Photographer: National Photo Company
Title: Miss Mae Esterley with Sgt. Jiggs
Date: Apr. 14, 1925
Location: unknown
Collection: Library of Congress, National Photo Company Collection
Description: Marine Corps mascot, Sergeant Major Jiggs with Miss Mae Esterley.
   
cow
Page: 63
Photographer: Willem Van de Poll (1895-1970)
Title: Milking a Cow
Date: 1933
Location: Broek in Waterland, North Holland
Collection: Dutch National Archives,* # 190-1013
Description: Model Eva Waldschmidt milking a cow.
   
dreamer
Page: 64
Photographer: Fitz W. Guerin (1846-1903)
Title: Young Woman Modeling
Date: 1902
Location: unknown
Collection: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographic Division
Description: Model reclilning on a chair.
   
flag
Page: 65
Photographer: National Photo Company
Title: Sewing Stars on Suffrage Flag
Date: 1920
Location: Washington,D.C.
Collection: Library of Congress, National Photo Company Collection
Description: Suffragettes sew stars on suffrage flag.
   
swimsuits
Page: 66
Photographer: unknown
Title: Swimsuit Women
Date: 1950s
Location: unknown
Collection: unknown
Description: Four African-American women posing on the beach.
   
violet
Page: 67
Photographer: unknown
Title: Violet Lynch running into the surf - Miami Beach, Florida
Date: unknown
Location: Miami Beach, Florida
Collection: State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory
Description: "With a screech and a splash, Violet Lynch is shown running into the surf at Miami clad in the latest in bathing suits designed by Ethel Traphagen of New York. Made of korosealed marquisette, the design captured the style from the return of corsets in women's apparel."
   
wacs
Page: 68
Photographer: unknown
Title: WAC Members
Date: 1940s
Location: unknown
Collection: unknown
Description: Two members of the Women's Army Corps (WAC) posing.
   
skiers
Page: 69
Photographer: unknown
Title: Women's Olympic Ski Team
Date: 1948
Location: unknown
Collection: unknown
Description: Members of the 1948 Women's Olympic Ski Team pose atop a mountain. Left to right: Gretchen Fraser, Andrea Mead Lawrence, Paula Kahn and Brynhild Grusmoen.
   
daughter
Page:70
Photographer: unknown
Title: Woman and Mom
Date: unknown
Location: unknown
Collection: Barb Mayer photo collection
Description: A young woman poses with her mother on the running board of a vintage car. This photo was discovered in a Renton WA antique shop.